Turkish-German-Soviet Interests In German Presssolution of “Turkish Knot” and The Role Of Bolshevism (1918-1920)

Author : Hakan Gökpınar
Number of pages : 261-284


Described in European literature as “Oriental Problem”; the race for political and economic influence over the property of “the Sick Man” ended in 1918 with the victory of the UK-led allied states. After the victory, the allies’ disagreements in sharing the spoils, the emergence of Bolshevik Russia as a force that balanced itself against British imperialism in the short term with a desire to protect itself and to spread economically in the long term by beginning to play an active role in the international equation thanks to Brest-Litowsk, and finally the establishment of an alliance against imperialism by this Bolshevik force and the Anatolian Turkish national resistance with common political and social values all formed a “Turkish Knot” that was difficult to resolve. The process of resolving this knot delayed the signing of the Peace Treaty of Sevr, which was envisaged to be signed after the ceasefire and which the European public described as “Turkish Peace”. Despite the difficulties in resolving this knot and the limited possibilities of the Muslim-Turkish resistance led by M. Kemal, its political and military organizational capability brought up updates to the policies of Britain, France and Italy. From this update, Germany, the loser of the war, saw a political, military and economic recovery in Europe, a glimmer of hope for new trade gains in the Russian geography and the reconstruction of its influence in its former ally, Turkey. In this context, in preparation for the Turkish liberation war, the German national press took part in common Turkish-German-Soviet interests and in the role of Bolshevism, some of which were published for the first time in this study, by trying to shed light into this matter using news, analysis and articles. Keywords: Turkish Problem, War of Independence, Imperialism, Bolshevik Russia, Germany.


Turkish Problem, War of Independence, Imperialism, Bolshevik Russia, Germany


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